Medical laboratories, known as clinical labs, are responsible for diagnosing, treating, and preventing diseases through tests performed on clinical specimens. These labs are divided into two sections, each with multiple units. Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians analyze body fluids, tissues, and cells for any bacteria, parasites, or abnormal cells, as well as checking cholesterol levels and cross-matching blood samples for transfusions. They document their findings in reports or patient medical records.

Clinical laboratory science is a health profession that provides laboratory information and services required for disease diagnosis and treatment. Clinical laboratory scientists conduct a variety of laboratory tests, ensure the quality of test results, interpret the significance of laboratory tests, assess new methods, and study the effectiveness of laboratory tests.

To ensure quality control, clinical laboratory technologists and technicians set up, calibrate, and maintain microscopes, cell counters, software, and other equipment. The clinical laboratory of a hospital uses fluid or tissue samples from patients to identify evidence of disease or medical conditions.